Thursday, August 27, 2020
Jain Man Fasts to Death Essay A multi year old Indian man kicked the bucket of starvation that is called Ã¢â¬Å"santharaÃ¢â¬ . It is an old practice in Jainism where an individual fasts for various days and is accepted to enable the individual to accomplish salvation. A few people are as yet not managable to this training as they accept this is such a self destruction. Then again, Amar Chand, the man who kicked the bucket, accepted that it would assist him with purifying his spirit as he has been sick for quite a while as of now. Ã¢â¬Å"SantharaÃ¢â¬ is a strict custom portrayed as expected passing by fasting. During the way toward fasting, the individual is offered time to ponder his life, which is motivation behind why this is considered to bring salvation. On the off chance that somebody feels like he has filled his need throughout everyday life and felt like he has granted enough of himself to the world, one can choose to quick. There are a ton of strict practices on the planet; some may even appear to be crazy and unreasonable. In any case, to the adherents of the particular religions, their conviction remains by the way that they would have the option to accomplish something out of it; for this situation, salvation. All things being equal, to conclude that you have filled your need is an indication of awareness and information on the conviction that you are following. It shows that given enough self control and confidence in something, anyone can do anything. To the Jains, however some may imagine that Ã¢â¬Å"santharaÃ¢â¬ is equal to self destruction, they despite everything clutch the training on the grounds that apparently, having the option to think about oneÃ¢â¬â¢s life can assist them with sparing themselves from profound passing similarly as the Muslims accept that they have to make a trip to Mecca at any rate once in their life.
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Redistricting is shaping new limits of the state because of populace change which may have expanded or decreased because of specific factors, for example, movement and relocation. A nation or state chooses to adjust its present locale to attempt to adjust the populace. This aides in appropriation of nations assets in a reasonable way along these lines improving the nations government assistance. In spite of the fact that redistricting encourages the nation to keep an eye on the government assistance of its resident it very well may be disadvantageous whenever utilized in an inappropriate way. It is obvious that most locale of a nation are shaped by the administrators of the legislature and they may will in general utilize this chance to further their potential benefit. A nations majority rules system can be influenced by the Partisan redistricting process, it might be contrarily or decidedly affected since this procedure of redistricting can increment or lessening political race rivalry. From the states where Partisan redistricting is obvious a large portion of the gathering individuals remain in power for a significant stretch of time since they are consistently reappointed because of absence of rivalry, hence the Partisan control of redistricting is answerable for the uncompetitive idea of political race. As I clarify my hypothesis I will continually allude to the territory of America to base my contention since Partisan control of redistribution is exceptionally clear and very much showed there. Divided control of redistricting is exceptionally affected strategically and the larger part limits framed are made in order to profit the officials during the political race time. The locale made are occupied for the most part by the supporters of the lawmaking bodies . In this way during the races the lawmakers will have a bit of leeway over any contradicting power that may come up since he has the majorityÃ¢â¬â¢s votes. For example in America most of individuals who dwell in one area is either republicans or Democrats. In such a case less contradicting powers will rise therefore adding to uncompetitive decisions. This is on the grounds that regardless of whether more gatherings ascend they will all wind up supporting the present occupant consequently all battles will be equipped into one bearing and in this manner no opposition in the decisions will ascend. This can be found in the 2004 US decisions where roughly 98% of the occupants won back their seats and just 5% lost their seats to the resistance. In California numerous gatherings had come up however totally wound up supporting the occupant . There was insufficient power to contradict him along these lines the races were not serious. In Indiana somewhere in the range of 1992 and 2002 all the officeholders won back their 32 US seats . This is against Abramowitz, Alexander and GunningÃ¢â¬â¢s hypothesis that the Parisian control of redistricting in America has not added to the uncompetitive idea of the decisions. They state that the Parisian redistricting has not influenced the diminished the political decision rivalry yet different factors, for example, topographical impacts which incorporate relocation and movement and absence of a decent money related ground to complete battle viably is the thing that has caused the uncompetitive idea of the races . The majority of the locale shaped are possessed by a lion's share of residents who host a similar inclination on the get-together they support, in this manner are happy with their congress and administrative constitution. Subsequently none of them will have the need of choosing another occupant or shaping restricting forces against the officeholder. This shows there will be no opposition during the battle and along these lines the idea of uncompetitive races is delineated. This can be demonstrated by the manipulating hypothesis, of lawmaking bodies utilizing the redistricting procedure in their own kindness to win decisions . McDonald likewise bolsters my hypothesis that redistricting has enormously added to uncompetitive nature of the races. He says that redistricting has brought into the world numerous individuals who bolster the occupant and in this way decline the quantity of votes of the other people who contradict the officeholder . Absence of rivalry at the lower levels of decisions like the neighborhood political decision for committees is another factor that bolsters my contention that the Partisan control of redistricting has added to uncompetitive races. There are constrained appointive seats to be battled for and those current help the officeholder. Along these lines no opposition will be imminent and that is the reason the vast majority of the gatherings are reappointed once more into their positions. In America the appointment of the boards is in certainty the least serious and no impressive consideration is given to them since their result is constantly known to the degree that a portion of the gathering races are not completed. The Partisan control of redistricting affected the occupants in a locale to either be supporters of the Republican or Democrats. This has drawn a sharp line between locale. Residents in a specific locale want to decide in favor of the momentum officeholder since he is their inclination as opposed to rival to run him down and sit down. They do this to keep up their notoriety of being either Republican or Democrat supporters and don't cast a ballot as indicated by their inclination. Over the long haul there is negligible battle rivalry in the region consequently the general decrease in the political decision rivalry . Schleicher composed an article giving the perils achieved by absence of serious decisions brought about by the Parisian redistricting framework. I additionally will in general help him on the grounds that the framework hurt the vote based system of the America state by overlooking the rights and needs of the minority voters, for example, production of more openings for work in the area are not perceived, this is on the grounds that dominant part of the inhibitors of the locale host the equivalent get-together inclination and won't cast a ballot to get their needs satisfied however will cast a ballot to hold the occupant whom they support. Likewise improving the area is a genuine annoyance since this activity won't be bolstered by the voters as by transforming one will be changing the locale component to hold the occupant they need . In Ohio many change activities have come up yet all have been closed down on the grounds that it is either the republican or democrat pioneer who has the minority voter turnout who accompanies the exertion however is avoid somewhere around the other partner who has the most votes. For instance in the year 2005 numerous association met up and framed the Reform Ohio Now (RON) development to change Ohio. This development comprised basically Democrats and not many Republicans. The move was not invited by the voters since the current officeholder was a Republican and in this way the lion's share votes originated from the Republican supporters . To have the option to expand political race rivalry redistricting ought to be finished placing into account the number of inhabitants in the area and the residents needs in order to appropriate the abundance of the nation equally and in a reasonable way that considers everybody without thinking about which gathering or who they support. Additionally another association that will shape the new regions ought to be chosen and they ought not be politically impacted or ought not be connected with legislative issues by any means. This will empower reasonable locale which will show high rivalry during the political race to be shaped, consequently empowering majority rule government of a nation or state to win. The period wherein redistricting is done ought to be stretched out to be a significant stretch presumably following ten years to forestall the limits of the regions being changed to suit the wants or inclination of the individual framing them. This will likewise over the long haul make rivalry during races as the inhibitors of the locale will have known their inclination and when casting a ballot will cast a ballot admirably to be spoken to by an occupant who will tune in to their hardships and do his exercises such that he will empower him to full fill his voterÃ¢â¬â¢s needs. Word Count: 1272 Bibliography Abramowitz, Alan, Brad Alexander and Matthew Gunning. 2006. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t Blame Redistricting for Uncompetitive Elections. PS: Political Science and Politics 39 (January): 87-90 Butler, David, and Bruce . E. Cain. 1992. Congressional Redistricting: Comparative and Theoretical Perspectives. Macmillan: New York. Jacobson, Gary . C. 2001. The Politics of Congressional Elections. Longman: New York. McDonald, Michael . P. 2004. A Comparative Analysis of U. S. State Redistricting Institutions. State Politics and Policy Quarterly. Monmonier, Mark. 2001. Bushmanders and Bullwinkles: How Politicians Manupilate Electronic Maps and Census Data to Win Elections. College of Chicago Press: Chicago. New York Times. 2004. Races With no Meaning. February 14, A-14. Owen, Guillermo, and Bernard N. Grofman, 1998. ideal fanatic Gerrymandering. Political Geography Quarterly 7 (1): 5-22. Stonecash, Jeffrey . M. , Mark . D. Brewer and Mack . D. Mariani. 2003. Wandering Parties: Social Change, Realignment and Party Polarization. Westview Press: Boulder, CO.
Friday, August 21, 2020
Question: Examine about theLegal Aspects of International Business for Nissan Motor Mfg. Corp. Answer: Presentation In the matter of Nissan Motor Mfg. Corp., U.S.A. v. US 693 F.Supp. 1183 (1988), cross movements were made for the outline judgment, made based on Rule 56 of the Rule of United States Court of International Trade. The inquiry which was brought up in this issue was identified with the inconvenience of obligation over the importation of hardware for creating the product in a remote exchange subzone (Court Listener, 2017). The offended party, i.e., Nissan Motor Manufacturing Corporation U.S.A., or basically Nissan, moved to the court for an outline judgment as which the United States Customs Service, or just Customs, was required to reliquidate the passages of creation apparatus, just as, the related capital hardware, and furthermore for getting the discount of obligations adding up to over $3,000,000. The United States, i.e., the litigant requested that the court affirm the evaluation of obligation by Customs (JKPC, 2017). The accompanying parts spread a detail of this very case, whereby the contentions set forward by the litigant have been expressed, alongside the choice of the court. However, before that is done, the verifiable foundation of this case has been examined. True Background According to the US Foreign Trade Zones Act, the authority has been given to the foundations of outside exchange zone, when the product can be imported in an obligation free way, for the reasons identifying with deal; and this incorporates cleaning, blending, evaluating, arranging, conveying, amassing, repackaging, separating, selling, putting away, blending in with household of remote product, in any case controlled, or can be fabricated aside from as has been given in this section (Enforcement, 2017). In Smyrna, Tennessee, a remote exchange subzone had been made for Nissan. Furthermore, $116 million worth of hardware had been imported by Nissan which was being utilized by the organization for assembling the vehicles at its plant. A worth adding up to more than $3,000,000 was evaluated by the US Customs Service as this machinerys import obligations. The expense was paid by Nissan under dissent and the legitimacy of these obligations was tested by the offended party in the court. The appraisal was maintained by the US Court of International Trade and the offended party requested against this choice (Cameron, 2015). Litigants Arguments The litigant might want to feature that the thorough rundown of exercises contained in the correction of 1950, the plain language of the resolution would misshape for perusing in different terms as worked, devoured, or utilized. The legal developments general principle is that expressio unius est exclusio alterius, according to which communicating of a specific thing, can be considered as a rejection of the other option. What's more, this respect, the instance of United States v. Douglas Aircraft Co., 62 CCPA 54, 59, C.A.D. 1145 (1975) is useful (Case Text, 2017a). The exercises which have been recognized by the Congress, in the complete rundown, don't allow any of the tasks or establishments of the creation gear, till the time the obligations have been paid. Furthermore, aside from the plain perusing of this resolution, the 1950 correction of the Foreign Trade Zones Acts authoritative history is additionally informative of the expectation of the Congress (The Court, 2014). The litigant might want to decipher this very history to delineate the aim of the Congress with respect to the thought that the zones can't be utilized in complete way to stay away from the obligations on the creation gear which is utilized or is expended in that zone. The litigant would additionally bolster the understanding through the administrative history behind the alteration of the Foreign Trade Zones Act (Durant, 2017). According to this, it has been obviously expressed in the go about according to 1950 revision that the exception from installment of obligations, for the imported product in a remote exchange zone isn't pertinent over the gear and hardware which has been imported for use in this outside exchange zone (Bolle and Williams, 2013). Despite the fact that this perception has been made in 1984, till which time, the creation apparatus had just been imported in the Nissan subzone; it shows the historical backdrop of the alteration (Justia, 2017a). A subject was held in Butler v. US Dep't of Agriculture, 826 F.2d 409, 414 n. 6 (fifth Cir.1987) and in Co. v. US, 74 Cust Ct 583, 590, 200 F Supp 302, 308 (1961), aff'd, 50 CCPA 36, C.A.D. 816 (1963) with respect to cautious thought of the ensuing articulations as a definitive articulation of the master assessment (Case Text, 2017b). The offended party had depended upon the instance of Hawaiian Indep Refinery v. US, 81 Cust Ct 117, 460 F Supp 1249 (1978). In this specific issue, importation of raw petroleum occurred in the remote exchange zone and the equivalent was prepared at the petroleum processing plant which was situated in the subzone. Later on, a piece of this handled unrefined petroleum was stores and was utilized based on prerequisite, as a wellspring of powering the tasks of the treatment facility (Leagle, 2017b). The Customs solicited the offended party from the cited case to document refined unrefined petroleum use in the zone as utilization passage and furthermore to order the fuel according to TSUS, i.e., Tariff Schedules of the United States. The choice of the exclusively was fought for this situation and it was guaranteed that the refined raw petroleum had not been exposed to obligation. In this issue, it was held that since the refined unrefined petroleum was being utilized as an auxiliary wells pring of duel, the equivalent couldn't be held as dutiable (Justia, 2017b). Nonetheless, the respondent might want to separate between the current case and the cited case. In the cited case, the significance of product under the Foreign Trade Zones Act contained the refined unrefined petroleum. Anyway the creation gear, of the current case, are not secured under the meaning of product because of the comprehensive rundown of the Congress with respect to the reasonable activities not being permitted as an article which can be brought into a zone, which was liberated from obligation and which could be utilized as a creation apparatus for making different articles (Leagle, 2017a). The litigant might likewise want to express that as an issue of open arrangement, it was not the aim of the Congress to put the local merchants or the fabricates of creation apparatus in a way which places them at a serious inconvenience concerning the creation hardware which is outside produced which could be imported with no obligation for the remote exchange zones and which could be sold in a less expensive way (Leagle, 2017a). It was expressed in one of the Customs Service Decision with respect to the creation apparatus, which had been imported from Japan all things considered, for utilization of the equivalent in some other remote exchange zone. All things considered, it was expressed by the Customs that every single article can't be regarded as product. The respondent might again want to feature that the administrative proposition concerning license the section of creation gear in a particular way in a remote exchange zone, without the paying the obligations was dismissed by the Congress (Leagle, 2017a). Based on Hawaiian Indep Refinery v. US, the litigant might likewise want to express that the tax plans are applied on Nissan through the go about as the installment of these obligations was explicitly thought about by the Board, which was made in the subzone. What's more, according to the litigant, the Board has the intensity of endorsing the principles and guidelines which are required for completing the Act and consequently, the installment of obligations with respect to the creation hardware can't be denied by Nissan (Leagle, 2017a). The litigant might likewise want to express that the organization had recognized in a suggested way the necessity of paying the obligation on the creation hardware for building up an outside exchange zone a formal and complete application, alongside in the FTZ Systems fundamental arrangement. These were submitted in 1982 May. These archives help in plainly characterizing the extension which has been conceded by the Board in regards to the zone (Leagle, 2017a). Choice of the Court It was held by the court that without offering respects to the authority of the Board to put conditions on the award of a zone for the creation supplies installment of obligation, the Board was not molded to allow subzone of the Company any verifiable guarantee, in view of the reports introduced in May, concerning installment of obligations. This end was reached by the Court as the Resolution and Order had just been embraced and the Grant of Authority had just been conveyed; all the more significantly, these records had just been distributed in the Federal Register (Leagle, 2017a). Concerning the Boards activities, it was held by the Court that when the application was made by the organization to the Board, a reference was not made as to the creation machinerys dutiable status and the stupendous of power given by the Board didn't confine the privilege of entering the creation hardware in the zone by the organization, without installment of the obligations or adapted the award in a way which could have deferred the privileges of the organization to challenge the section prerequisite of Customs trough documenting of a dissent against the liquidation, alongside started activities to tested the fights refusal. What's more, do, the second contention of the litigant was declined. However, it was obviously expressed that the annihilation of the second contention of the respondent didn't overcome the achievement of the main contention made by the litigant, which was identified with the rule and the authoritative history (Schaffer, Agusti and Dhooge, 2014). Based on the language given in the administering demonstration, i.e., in Foreign Trade Zones Act and its alterations, alongside the administrative history introduced by the respondent, it was held by the Court that the creation apparatus and the related capital gear must be held dutiable. The assurance of the
Tuesday, May 26, 2020
Bolsa Familia springs from a long tradition of welfare and development strategies in Latin America. Economic and social development are of central concern to governments and development agencies worldwide due to their direct link to equality. This can be explained through the well-defined link between income levels and health, education and nutritional outcomes, emphasizing the importance of addressing inequality in order to break the cycle of intergenerational poverty. Thus, reducing inequality is central to the success of policy initiatives, as the Bolsa FamiliaÃ¢â¬â¢s strong focus on developing human capital is what makes it a Ã¢â¬Ëpoverty reduction program rather than a social assistance oneÃ¢â¬â¢ (Fitzbein et al, 2009: 11). Targeting developmentÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Figure 1: Social security, health, and education expenditure in Brazil Source: Haggard and Kaufmann, 2008: 388. Welfare can be defined as the minimum level of responsibility of the state for its citizens Ã¢â¬â this is what I will attribute to Ã¢â¬Ësocial securityÃ¢â¬â¢ in Figure one. Welfare can be in the form of a steady base transfer, in order to provide ongoing, or short term payments to alleviate financial hardship. In contrast, human capital accumulation (HCA) can be attributed to investments in Ã¢â¬ËeducationÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËhealthÃ¢â¬â¢ (Figure 1). HCA is the increased education, health and productivity of potential workers, to which Ã¢â¬Ësocial securityÃ¢â¬â¢ is only a precondition. It is a central driver of human and economic development. Thus, Bolsa FamiliaÃ¢â¬â¢s conditionality is what distinguishes it from a welfare scheme to a poverty assistance scheme. Furthermore, the conditionality aspect of cash transfers is what assures requirements regarding human capital accumulation will be met. CCTs are a site of convergence of international and statist development policy initiatives, which are played out at the community level by administrators and agents on the ground. Thus, Bolsa Familia is led by governments, endorsed by the World Bank, and implemented by local authorities. CCTs are seen as Ã¢â¬Ëan alternative to more traditional and paternalistic approaches to social assistanceÃ¢â¬â¢ (de la Briere and Rawlings, 2006: 6). It is this level of decentralisation which contributes to their appeal on both the
Friday, May 15, 2020
In this paper I am going to attempt to answer a question utilizing a little help from one of two philosophers. First of all the question I will be answering is Ã¢â¬Å"Should the moral value of an action be determined by the intentions/character that inspire the action, or the consequences that result from the action?Ã¢â¬ Second, the philosophers I am going to discuss throughout this paper are Immanuel Kant and John Stuart Mill. Now before I tell you my answer to this question I am going to explain these who these two philosophers are and what their viewpoints on ethics are. Immanuel Kant was born in what is now Germany in 1724 and died in 1804 and was the type of philosopher to act out of duty. He believes that actions should be performed out of duty alone, in other words he thinks that all actions should be impartial. To act out of duty is to follow the categorical imperative. There are three forms of the categorical imperative: You should do what would be morally required of any one in your situation, an objective and impartial duty; it is natural to do these duties; do not use others or let yourself be used. For Kant the categorical imperative is represented as Ã¢â¬Å"an action as objectively necessary of itself, without reference to another end.Ã¢â¬ (Kant 353). KantÃ¢â¬â¢s ethical point of view is known as deontological ethics. The term maxim as Kant uses it is defined as a personal policy that motivates oneÃ¢â¬â¢s action. In his book called the Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals, he mentionsShow MoreRelatedImmanuel Kant And John Stuart Mill Essay2002 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesmost widely known ethical philosophers are Immanuel Kant and John Stuart Mill. While they may have philosophized around the same time period, the philosophers have very different ideas about ethics and happiness. Immanuel Kant, author of Duty and Reason, believed in the morality of the good will and duty. He espoused that happiness is an irrelevancy insofar as fulfilling duty is the most important aspect of leading a moral life. Conversely, John Stuart Mill, who wrote, The Greatest Happiness PrincipleRead MoreJohn Stuart Mill And Immanuel Kant1387 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesdifferent philosophers. Two of these philosophers are John Stuart Mill and Immanuel Kant. Mill, in Utilitarianism defines happiness as pleasure without pain. He buil ds upon this idea of happiness when establishing his moral philosophy, stating that the action that would bring about the maximum amount of happiness is the most moral action. On the other hand, Kant establishes happiness as well-being and a satisfaction with oneÃ¢â¬â¢s condition. Kant, however, argues that happiness is too fully based uponRead MoreJohn Stuart Mill And Immanuel Kant1786 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesJohn Stuart Mill and Immanuel Kant. They both had very different views when it came to the ethics of philosophy. They also though had some of the same views as each other. Both were concerned with the moral qualities of actions and choices of a person, but neither of them was much interested in about what makes a good person. They also different views and some of the same views when it came to lying. One thought it should never be done. The other thought it should be used as a last resort. FirstRead MoreImmanuel Kant And John Stuart Mill1206 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesof morality, there is no right answer to dilemmas only different opinions. Immanuel Kant and John Stuart Mill are philosophers with two different views on a personÃ¢â¬â¢s moral conscious. Kant believes morality is a duty that people should hold above their own happiness. On the other hand, Mill believes happiness is the goal of morality and the more happiness is acquired at the end is the most moral. According to Immanuel Kant, morality is a duty people must hold above their own happiness. For somethingRead MoreImmanuel Kant And John Stuart Mill948 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesyou do it? Immanuel Kant and John Stuart Mill would give you strongly contrasting opinions. A person should not kill another to benefit five others. It would be a wrong thing to do, but Mill would disagree. Kant believed that good intentions count and that the morality of an action is determined by the intentions behind it rather than its consequences. Kant says that the consequences are irrelevant to assessments of moral worth, which contrasts sharply with MillÃ¢â¬â¢s utilitarianism. Kant believed thatRead MoreJohn Stuart Mill And Immanuel Kant Essay1805 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesphilosophers, Kant and Mill, to determine whether or not torture is ever ethical. John Stuart Mill and Immanuel Kant, both proposed different philosophies, using deontological and teleological theories in ethics. John Stuart Mill used a teleological theory, which prioritized the end result of an action, based off the moral nature of the action itself, compared to the deontological theory proposed by Kant, which presented actions as obligations of an individual, leading them to act in a certain way. Mill usedRead MoreImmanuel Kant And John Stuart Mill998 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesTwo knowledgeable men, one says go right, the other, left. Who is right? Immanuel Kant and John Stuart Mill were both noted philosophers with opposing theories on what is moral. Each uphold different ways of observing what is right. The theory of utilitarianism held by Mill and universalism held by Kant has similarit ies and differences. Who stands correct, and who is mistaken? Utilitarianism is the belief that decisions should be made based on how much pleasure they bring (MacKinnon and FialaRead MoreImmanuel Kant And John Stuart Mill2050 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesstraight forward as proposed by Immanuel Kant and John Stuart Mill in The Groundswork and Utilitarianism respectively. Kant, in The Groundswork, and Mill, in Utilitarianism, come to different conclusions about what is intrinsically good, yet neither of them come to a valid explanation for the following reasons; Kant produces a narrow view focused entirely on having a good will, acting only based off of duties, and ignoring the outcomes of your actions, while Mill calculates intrinsic value basedRead MoreJohn Stuart Mill vs. Immanuel Kant2163 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesJohn Stuart Mill vs. Immanuel Kant The aim of this paper is to clearly depict how John Stuart MillÃ¢â¬â¢s belief to do good for all is more appropriate for our society than Immanuel KantÃ¢â¬â¢s principle that it is better to do whats morally just. I will explain why MillÃ¢â¬â¢s theory served as a better guide to moral behavior and differentiate between the rights and responsibilities of human beings to themselves and society. Immanuel Kant and John Stuart Mill are philosophers who addressed the issues of moralityRead MoreA Study Of Ethics By Immanuel Kant And John Stuart Mill992 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesaround ethics. The court released Lavallee as innocent on the basis that she is medically ill with Battered Woman Syndrome (BWS). The two most renowned ethicists, Immanuel Kant and John Stuart Mill would view this case differently. Kantianism is associated solely with Immanuel Kant. In comparison, John Stuart Mill, an opponent of Immanuel KantÃ¢â¬â¢s ideas, uses a utilitarian approach. This essay will briefly give an overview of the case and the BWS. Then, it will show how both theories view the case.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
On January 18, 1989, the abandonment of rehabilitation in corrections was confirmed by the U.S. Supreme Court. In Mistretta v. United States, the Court upheld federal sentencing guidelines which remove rehabilitation from serious consideration when sentencing offenders. Defendants will henceforth be sentenced strictly for the crime, with no recognition given to such factors as amenability to treatment, personal and family history, previous efforts to rehabilitate oneself, or possible alternatives to prison. The Court outlined the history of the debate: Rehabilitation as a sound enological theory came to be questioned and, in any event, was regarded by some as an unattainable goal for most cases. The Court cited a Senate Report whichÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The second article written by Tamar Lewin, of The New York Times highlights some information and several studies that shows that education programs in prisons and jails help reduce the rate of recidivism. according to a study for the Department of Education Inmates who receive schooling- through vocational training or classes at the high school or college level are far less likely to return within three years of their release, (The New York Times). The article also points out those schooling aids in public safety by getting more parolees to be active and healthy members of society. A source for The New York Times, Stephen J. Steurer, says and I quote We found that for every dollar you spend on education, you save a dollar by avoiding the cost of re- incarceration (The New York Times). Nonetheless, the article is so eagerly notes that even though it has been proven cheaper to educate and rehabilitate than to consistently re- incarcerate former prison and jail inmates Ã¢â¬Å"it very difficult to get public financing for such classes (The New York Times). Lastly, the article touches on the state of affairs of the educational opportunities given. It describes the situation as Varying widely by state, with half or fewer prisoners getting some form of education in most states, and,Show MoreRelatedPrison is no Changing Prisoners1187 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagespeople claim that prison does not change people. Research indicates that after indulging in criminal activities, approximately 70% of the released prisoners return to jail within a few years. Most of them fall in three broad areas: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Violent offending Ã¢â¬ ¢ Sex offending Ã¢â¬ ¢ Addictions (Prisoner Rehabilitation) This shows that there are many different types of criminals some more violent than others. On the other hand, some people believe that criminals can rehabilitate after prison. Evidence showsRead MoreMale And Female Sentencing : A Look Into Alternative Sentencing1274 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesrates rising and jail and prison populations at an all-time high, alternative sentencing is being used more often with non-violent offenders. This paper looks at male and female incarceration rates, the use of alternative programs for sentencing between the two and the effectiveness of such programs. During the paper we will analyze sentencing differences between male and female offenders. We will also analyze the use of alternative programs for sentencing and their effectiveness. Female V MaleRead MoreEssay on The Mission of the Correctional System 1218 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe correctional system has three main goals: punish, protect the community and rehabilitate the offender. However, it is unclear how well the modern U.S correctional system achieves these goals and whether the money invested in the correctional system might be better spent. These are some of the points I will cover regarding what I think about the correctional system. Department of Corrections is an agency of the state that is responsible for the supervision and management of convicted felonsRead MoreEffectiveness And Effectiveness Of Incarceration980 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesBritian is now known to have record numbers in jails, which is also accurate for many other countries, such as USA, which has over two million people in prison, one and a half million serve in China and nearly one million in the Russian Federation (Newburn 2013: 706). Despite the fact that jails and conviction work differently when it comes to other countries, we can all agree on the fact that they exist namely in order to prevent crime and set justice for those who have been a victim of one as wellRead MoreThe Controversy Over the Death Penalty Essay907 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesgrowing problem of overcrowded prisons, or is justice really being served? Why do some view the taking of a life morally correct? These questions are discussed and debated upon in every state and national legislature throughout the country. Advantages and disadvantages for the death penalty exist, and many members of the United States, and individual State governments, have differing opinions. Yet it seems that the stronger arguments, and evidence such as cost effectiveness, should lead the commonRead MoreThe Justification Of Punishment Today s Society999 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesjustice system as a whole is correct in theory, however, as stated by Bartollas and Siegel, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦only 20 percent of all recorded criminal acts result in arrest, and only about 20 percent of arrests wind up in prison, so the ability of punishment to deter crime is undermined by lack of system effectiveness and efficiencyÃ¢â¬ (2013). With individuals who willfully commit crimes and are skillful and knowledgeable enough to manipulate the justice system to either evade arrest or avoid conviction, one could argueRead MoreThe United States Juvenile Justice Court Was Based On The1325 Words Ã |Ã 6 P agesThe United States juvenile justice court was based on the English parens patriae adopted in the United States as part of the legal tradition of England. But the efforts of the state to rehabilitate juvenile offenders with institutional treatment with the houses of refuge and reformatories failed. Today, the United States has 51 different juvenile court systems; the laws and statutes vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. Thus, each stateÃ¢â¬â¢s approach to handle the youth offenders is responsible forRead MoreJustifications for Punishment in Modern Society1630 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesdirectly aimed towards a particular individual who has already committed the crime through actually experiencing the punishment first hand. An example of this may be, being convicted of a crime and as a result being sentenced to so many years in jail or prison. However, in order for it to be successful, the Ã¢â¬Å"previously punished person must make a conscious connection between an intended crimi nal act and the punishment suffered as a result of similar acts committed in the pastÃ¢â¬ (Stohr, Walsh, HemmensRead MoreEssay on Alternatives to Prison1677 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesAlternatives to Prison Prisons, facilities maintained for confining people convicted of committing crimes, were used to rehabilitate offenders while keeping them isolated from the community. The Quakers built the first prison in 1790 in order to seclude criminal offenders from society to think about their wrongdoing and to seek forgiveness in a kind, and spiritual environment. (Inciardi 497) Currently, there are three types of prisons within the Federal, State, and County governments. TheseRead MoreMass Incarceration And Its Effects On The United States Essay1264 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesstrikes law, truth-in sentencing laws, mandatory sentencing, and determinate sentencing, our prisons and jails have become overcrowded. The three strikes law increases the prison sentence of an offender convicted of three felonies or serious crime. Usually the punishment ranges from a minimum of 25 years to life in prison. The truth-in sentencing laws require the offender to serve a substantial amount of their prison sentence (usually around 85 percent) before they are eligible for release on parole. The
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Discuss about the Models, tools and Techniques of Organizational Change. Answer: Literature review: This assignment is basically a literature review of the article A change management process : Grounded in both theory and practice. The topic of the article: In this assignment, the article A change management process : Grounded in both theory and practice, written by three renowned professors: Anthony Mento, Raymond Jones and Walter Dirndorfer has been chosen for further analysis. This article describes the change management process and illustrates how to implement this procedure both theoretically and practically. This article also involves 12 steps on the basis of some real life experiences that took place in the year 1990. These changes are very much required to execute the change. Objective of the article: This article mainly deals with the change management process. In 1990, the defense industry was facing severe problem due to inadequate defense budget. Due to the environmental shift, there was a requirement of the change management process. Two authors of this article were engaged in this process. There are various types of change models. The three most recognized change models are: Kotters strategic eight-step model for transforming organisations, Jicks tactical ten-step model for implementing change, and General Electric (GE)s seven-step change acceleration process. This article uses a model that is derived from the above mentioned three articles. The main objective of this study is to give proper assistance to a business practitioner who is undergoing in the organizational change procedure. The methodology and means of analysis used in this article: This part of the assignment describes the methodologies and means of analysis that are used in this article. The primary source of this assignment is the intuitive explanation of the article. The article proceeds by elaborating the models. The first model used in this paper is Eight-step model for transforming organizations by Kotter (Appelbaum et.al., 2012). The second model used in this article is a tactical level model by Jick (Martnez-Olvera, Davizon-Castillo, 2015). The third model used in this article is the General Electric (GE)s seven step change acceleration model (Ashkena et. al., 2015). The descriptive method is used to explain the above three models. The secondary sources are the related papers associated to this change management process. The argument advanced in the article: This part of the assignment describes the 12 steps involved in the changing process. The first step of the change management process involves the idea and its context. In this step, the idea is recognized which is required to be changed in a company. The second part of the analysis defines the change initiative (Contrafatto Burns, 2013). The third part analyses the assessment of the weather for change. The forth step defines how a plan is developed for implementing a change. The objective of the fifth step is to find out a sponsor. The sixth step describes the preparation for the target audience and the receivers of the changing process. The seventh step illustrates how to create the cultural fit by making the change. The next step defines how to choose a leader for the team. The ninth step illustrates the creation of success for motivation purpose. The tenth step describes how to retain the change constantly and strategically. The next step measures the growth of the change effort. Finally, the last step integrates the learned lessons. (Cameron Green, 2015). This section provides the critical analysis of the change management process. According to a research, some situations tend to raise the possibility that the managers will incorporate in executing the change. This type of situation may arise due to poor performance, lower profitability. People react in different manner to change. While some people supports the change, some others opinion may be against the change. It is the leaders duty to understand his team-members opinion regarding the change and support them as much as possible. Though it is not possible that everybody will have same opinion but still there should be some coordination among them. The conclusions/findings of the article: The conclusion part of the assignment sums up the whole discussion of the change management process. According to Hayes (2014), before implementing the change process, one has to understand clearly the entire process. Firstly, he must have a proper idea about the change process. When one is beginning the journey, he should assess the atmosphere for change. Secondly, to overcome problems and difficulties, he must create a policy to implement the plan. Then he has to find a person who will sponsor this. Then he has to arrange the targeted viewers who will be the beneficiaries of the process. Next, it has to be clarified that whether the selected team for implementing this process is efficient, professional or committed to their work. One person has to be the leader of the crew. Then one has to set small goals for future and should proceed accordingly. Moreover, he has to measure the improvement of this change and finally he should learn lessons from his past incidents. This is the enti re change management procedure (Pugh, 2016). The implications for managers / management during organizational change process: While introducing the change management process, the managers have some vital role to play. For example, they should identify which may be the new product introduced in the market or what type of renovation may give competition to its rival companies. It is very important for a companys manager to determine its strengths and weaknesses before implementing change (Nordin, 2012). Moreover, all the members of the company need to understand why the change is required for the organization. The role of the team leader is also very crucial in this context. Another implication for managers is to select proper staffs for the company. Strengths: The strengths of the change management process are described here. It places the company in a better position. The process generates better perspective for the type of the change required. It helps to execute a procedure to find a way to do the required change. Moreover, a change in management process is required for every organization but it is very important that how the change is done. Another positive side of this process is that it allows the employees of that organization to learn new things. Weaknesses: However, there are also some disadvantages of this process. If the change is not properly implemented, then it may disrupt any project. If all the employees do not accept the change, then it may cause conflicts among them. Moreover, to implement the change the company has to bear some costs. Therefore, the cost-to-benefit ratio must be considered before implementing the change. These are the major weaknesses of the change management process (Langley et. al., 2013). Reference list: Appelbaum, S. H., Habashy, S., Malo, J. L., Shafiq, H. (2012). Back to the future: revisiting Kotter's 1996 change model.Journal of Management Development,31(8), 764-782. Ashkenas, R., Ulrich, D., Jick, T., Kerr, S. (2015).The boundaryless organization: Breaking the chains of organizational structure. John Wiley Sons. Cameron, E., Green, M. (2015).Making sense of change management: a complete guide to the models, tools and techniques of organizational change. Kogan Page Publishers. Contrafatto, M., Burns, J. (2013). Social and environmental accounting, organisational change and management accounting: A processual view.Management Accounting Research,24(4), 349-365. Hayes, J. (2014).The theory and practice of change management. Palgrave Macmillan. Langley, A., Smallman, C., Tsoukas, H., Van de Ven, A. H. (2013). Process studies of change in organization and management: unveiling temporality, activity, and flow.Academy of Management Journal,56(1), 1-13. Martnez-Olvera, C., Davizon-Castillo, Y. A. (2015). Modeling the Supply Chain Management Creation of ValueA Literature Review of Relevant Concepts. Nordin, N., Deros, B. M., Wahab, D. A., Rahman, M. N. A. (2012). A framework for organisational change management in lean manufacturing implementation.International Journal of Services and Operations Management,12(1), 101-117. Pugh, L. (2016).Change management in information services. Routledge. Reigeluth, C. M. (Ed.). (2013).Instructional design theories and models: An overview of their current status. Routledge.