Tuesday, May 26, 2020
Bolsa Familia springs from a long tradition of welfare and development strategies in Latin America. Economic and social development are of central concern to governments and development agencies worldwide due to their direct link to equality. This can be explained through the well-defined link between income levels and health, education and nutritional outcomes, emphasizing the importance of addressing inequality in order to break the cycle of intergenerational poverty. Thus, reducing inequality is central to the success of policy initiatives, as the Bolsa FamiliaÃ¢â¬â¢s strong focus on developing human capital is what makes it a Ã¢â¬Ëpoverty reduction program rather than a social assistance oneÃ¢â¬â¢ (Fitzbein et al, 2009: 11). Targeting developmentÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Figure 1: Social security, health, and education expenditure in Brazil Source: Haggard and Kaufmann, 2008: 388. Welfare can be defined as the minimum level of responsibility of the state for its citizens Ã¢â¬â this is what I will attribute to Ã¢â¬Ësocial securityÃ¢â¬â¢ in Figure one. Welfare can be in the form of a steady base transfer, in order to provide ongoing, or short term payments to alleviate financial hardship. In contrast, human capital accumulation (HCA) can be attributed to investments in Ã¢â¬ËeducationÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËhealthÃ¢â¬â¢ (Figure 1). HCA is the increased education, health and productivity of potential workers, to which Ã¢â¬Ësocial securityÃ¢â¬â¢ is only a precondition. It is a central driver of human and economic development. Thus, Bolsa FamiliaÃ¢â¬â¢s conditionality is what distinguishes it from a welfare scheme to a poverty assistance scheme. Furthermore, the conditionality aspect of cash transfers is what assures requirements regarding human capital accumulation will be met. CCTs are a site of convergence of international and statist development policy initiatives, which are played out at the community level by administrators and agents on the ground. Thus, Bolsa Familia is led by governments, endorsed by the World Bank, and implemented by local authorities. CCTs are seen as Ã¢â¬Ëan alternative to more traditional and paternalistic approaches to social assistanceÃ¢â¬â¢ (de la Briere and Rawlings, 2006: 6). It is this level of decentralisation which contributes to their appeal on both the
Friday, May 15, 2020
In this paper I am going to attempt to answer a question utilizing a little help from one of two philosophers. First of all the question I will be answering is Ã¢â¬Å"Should the moral value of an action be determined by the intentions/character that inspire the action, or the consequences that result from the action?Ã¢â¬ Second, the philosophers I am going to discuss throughout this paper are Immanuel Kant and John Stuart Mill. Now before I tell you my answer to this question I am going to explain these who these two philosophers are and what their viewpoints on ethics are. Immanuel Kant was born in what is now Germany in 1724 and died in 1804 and was the type of philosopher to act out of duty. He believes that actions should be performed out of duty alone, in other words he thinks that all actions should be impartial. To act out of duty is to follow the categorical imperative. There are three forms of the categorical imperative: You should do what would be morally required of any one in your situation, an objective and impartial duty; it is natural to do these duties; do not use others or let yourself be used. For Kant the categorical imperative is represented as Ã¢â¬Å"an action as objectively necessary of itself, without reference to another end.Ã¢â¬ (Kant 353). KantÃ¢â¬â¢s ethical point of view is known as deontological ethics. The term maxim as Kant uses it is defined as a personal policy that motivates oneÃ¢â¬â¢s action. In his book called the Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals, he mentionsShow MoreRelatedImmanuel Kant And John Stuart Mill Essay2002 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesmost widely known ethical philosophers are Immanuel Kant and John Stuart Mill. While they may have philosophized around the same time period, the philosophers have very different ideas about ethics and happiness. Immanuel Kant, author of Duty and Reason, believed in the morality of the good will and duty. He espoused that happiness is an irrelevancy insofar as fulfilling duty is the most important aspect of leading a moral life. Conversely, John Stuart Mill, who wrote, The Greatest Happiness PrincipleRead MoreJohn Stuart Mill And Immanuel Kant1387 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesdifferent philosophers. Two of these philosophers are John Stuart Mill and Immanuel Kant. Mill, in Utilitarianism defines happiness as pleasure without pain. He buil ds upon this idea of happiness when establishing his moral philosophy, stating that the action that would bring about the maximum amount of happiness is the most moral action. On the other hand, Kant establishes happiness as well-being and a satisfaction with oneÃ¢â¬â¢s condition. Kant, however, argues that happiness is too fully based uponRead MoreJohn Stuart Mill And Immanuel Kant1786 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesJohn Stuart Mill and Immanuel Kant. They both had very different views when it came to the ethics of philosophy. They also though had some of the same views as each other. Both were concerned with the moral qualities of actions and choices of a person, but neither of them was much interested in about what makes a good person. They also different views and some of the same views when it came to lying. One thought it should never be done. The other thought it should be used as a last resort. FirstRead MoreImmanuel Kant And John Stuart Mill1206 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesof morality, there is no right answer to dilemmas only different opinions. Immanuel Kant and John Stuart Mill are philosophers with two different views on a personÃ¢â¬â¢s moral conscious. Kant believes morality is a duty that people should hold above their own happiness. On the other hand, Mill believes happiness is the goal of morality and the more happiness is acquired at the end is the most moral. According to Immanuel Kant, morality is a duty people must hold above their own happiness. For somethingRead MoreImmanuel Kant And John Stuart Mill948 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesyou do it? Immanuel Kant and John Stuart Mill would give you strongly contrasting opinions. A person should not kill another to benefit five others. It would be a wrong thing to do, but Mill would disagree. Kant believed that good intentions count and that the morality of an action is determined by the intentions behind it rather than its consequences. Kant says that the consequences are irrelevant to assessments of moral worth, which contrasts sharply with MillÃ¢â¬â¢s utilitarianism. Kant believed thatRead MoreJohn Stuart Mill And Immanuel Kant Essay1805 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesphilosophers, Kant and Mill, to determine whether or not torture is ever ethical. John Stuart Mill and Immanuel Kant, both proposed different philosophies, using deontological and teleological theories in ethics. John Stuart Mill used a teleological theory, which prioritized the end result of an action, based off the moral nature of the action itself, compared to the deontological theory proposed by Kant, which presented actions as obligations of an individual, leading them to act in a certain way. Mill usedRead MoreImmanuel Kant And John Stuart Mill998 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesTwo knowledgeable men, one says go right, the other, left. Who is right? Immanuel Kant and John Stuart Mill were both noted philosophers with opposing theories on what is moral. Each uphold different ways of observing what is right. The theory of utilitarianism held by Mill and universalism held by Kant has similarit ies and differences. Who stands correct, and who is mistaken? Utilitarianism is the belief that decisions should be made based on how much pleasure they bring (MacKinnon and FialaRead MoreImmanuel Kant And John Stuart Mill2050 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesstraight forward as proposed by Immanuel Kant and John Stuart Mill in The Groundswork and Utilitarianism respectively. Kant, in The Groundswork, and Mill, in Utilitarianism, come to different conclusions about what is intrinsically good, yet neither of them come to a valid explanation for the following reasons; Kant produces a narrow view focused entirely on having a good will, acting only based off of duties, and ignoring the outcomes of your actions, while Mill calculates intrinsic value basedRead MoreJohn Stuart Mill vs. Immanuel Kant2163 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesJohn Stuart Mill vs. Immanuel Kant The aim of this paper is to clearly depict how John Stuart MillÃ¢â¬â¢s belief to do good for all is more appropriate for our society than Immanuel KantÃ¢â¬â¢s principle that it is better to do whats morally just. I will explain why MillÃ¢â¬â¢s theory served as a better guide to moral behavior and differentiate between the rights and responsibilities of human beings to themselves and society. Immanuel Kant and John Stuart Mill are philosophers who addressed the issues of moralityRead MoreA Study Of Ethics By Immanuel Kant And John Stuart Mill992 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesaround ethics. The court released Lavallee as innocent on the basis that she is medically ill with Battered Woman Syndrome (BWS). The two most renowned ethicists, Immanuel Kant and John Stuart Mill would view this case differently. Kantianism is associated solely with Immanuel Kant. In comparison, John Stuart Mill, an opponent of Immanuel KantÃ¢â¬â¢s ideas, uses a utilitarian approach. This essay will briefly give an overview of the case and the BWS. Then, it will show how both theories view the case.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
On January 18, 1989, the abandonment of rehabilitation in corrections was confirmed by the U.S. Supreme Court. In Mistretta v. United States, the Court upheld federal sentencing guidelines which remove rehabilitation from serious consideration when sentencing offenders. Defendants will henceforth be sentenced strictly for the crime, with no recognition given to such factors as amenability to treatment, personal and family history, previous efforts to rehabilitate oneself, or possible alternatives to prison. The Court outlined the history of the debate: Rehabilitation as a sound enological theory came to be questioned and, in any event, was regarded by some as an unattainable goal for most cases. The Court cited a Senate Report whichÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The second article written by Tamar Lewin, of The New York Times highlights some information and several studies that shows that education programs in prisons and jails help reduce the rate of recidivism. according to a study for the Department of Education Inmates who receive schooling- through vocational training or classes at the high school or college level are far less likely to return within three years of their release, (The New York Times). The article also points out those schooling aids in public safety by getting more parolees to be active and healthy members of society. A source for The New York Times, Stephen J. Steurer, says and I quote We found that for every dollar you spend on education, you save a dollar by avoiding the cost of re- incarceration (The New York Times). Nonetheless, the article is so eagerly notes that even though it has been proven cheaper to educate and rehabilitate than to consistently re- incarcerate former prison and jail inmates Ã¢â¬Å"it very difficult to get public financing for such classes (The New York Times). Lastly, the article touches on the state of affairs of the educational opportunities given. It describes the situation as Varying widely by state, with half or fewer prisoners getting some form of education in most states, and,Show MoreRelatedPrison is no Changing Prisoners1187 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagespeople claim that prison does not change people. Research indicates that after indulging in criminal activities, approximately 70% of the released prisoners return to jail within a few years. Most of them fall in three broad areas: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Violent offending Ã¢â¬ ¢ Sex offending Ã¢â¬ ¢ Addictions (Prisoner Rehabilitation) This shows that there are many different types of criminals some more violent than others. On the other hand, some people believe that criminals can rehabilitate after prison. Evidence showsRead MoreMale And Female Sentencing : A Look Into Alternative Sentencing1274 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesrates rising and jail and prison populations at an all-time high, alternative sentencing is being used more often with non-violent offenders. This paper looks at male and female incarceration rates, the use of alternative programs for sentencing between the two and the effectiveness of such programs. During the paper we will analyze sentencing differences between male and female offenders. We will also analyze the use of alternative programs for sentencing and their effectiveness. Female V MaleRead MoreEssay on The Mission of the Correctional System 1218 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe correctional system has three main goals: punish, protect the community and rehabilitate the offender. However, it is unclear how well the modern U.S correctional system achieves these goals and whether the money invested in the correctional system might be better spent. These are some of the points I will cover regarding what I think about the correctional system. Department of Corrections is an agency of the state that is responsible for the supervision and management of convicted felonsRead MoreEffectiveness And Effectiveness Of Incarceration980 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesBritian is now known to have record numbers in jails, which is also accurate for many other countries, such as USA, which has over two million people in prison, one and a half million serve in China and nearly one million in the Russian Federation (Newburn 2013: 706). Despite the fact that jails and conviction work differently when it comes to other countries, we can all agree on the fact that they exist namely in order to prevent crime and set justice for those who have been a victim of one as wellRead MoreThe Controversy Over the Death Penalty Essay907 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesgrowing problem of overcrowded prisons, or is justice really being served? Why do some view the taking of a life morally correct? These questions are discussed and debated upon in every state and national legislature throughout the country. Advantages and disadvantages for the death penalty exist, and many members of the United States, and individual State governments, have differing opinions. Yet it seems that the stronger arguments, and evidence such as cost effectiveness, should lead the commonRead MoreThe Justification Of Punishment Today s Society999 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesjustice system as a whole is correct in theory, however, as stated by Bartollas and Siegel, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦only 20 percent of all recorded criminal acts result in arrest, and only about 20 percent of arrests wind up in prison, so the ability of punishment to deter crime is undermined by lack of system effectiveness and efficiencyÃ¢â¬ (2013). With individuals who willfully commit crimes and are skillful and knowledgeable enough to manipulate the justice system to either evade arrest or avoid conviction, one could argueRead MoreThe United States Juvenile Justice Court Was Based On The1325 Words Ã |Ã 6 P agesThe United States juvenile justice court was based on the English parens patriae adopted in the United States as part of the legal tradition of England. But the efforts of the state to rehabilitate juvenile offenders with institutional treatment with the houses of refuge and reformatories failed. Today, the United States has 51 different juvenile court systems; the laws and statutes vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. Thus, each stateÃ¢â¬â¢s approach to handle the youth offenders is responsible forRead MoreJustifications for Punishment in Modern Society1630 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesdirectly aimed towards a particular individual who has already committed the crime through actually experiencing the punishment first hand. An example of this may be, being convicted of a crime and as a result being sentenced to so many years in jail or prison. However, in order for it to be successful, the Ã¢â¬Å"previously punished person must make a conscious connection between an intended crimi nal act and the punishment suffered as a result of similar acts committed in the pastÃ¢â¬ (Stohr, Walsh, HemmensRead MoreEssay on Alternatives to Prison1677 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesAlternatives to Prison Prisons, facilities maintained for confining people convicted of committing crimes, were used to rehabilitate offenders while keeping them isolated from the community. The Quakers built the first prison in 1790 in order to seclude criminal offenders from society to think about their wrongdoing and to seek forgiveness in a kind, and spiritual environment. (Inciardi 497) Currently, there are three types of prisons within the Federal, State, and County governments. TheseRead MoreMass Incarceration And Its Effects On The United States Essay1264 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesstrikes law, truth-in sentencing laws, mandatory sentencing, and determinate sentencing, our prisons and jails have become overcrowded. The three strikes law increases the prison sentence of an offender convicted of three felonies or serious crime. Usually the punishment ranges from a minimum of 25 years to life in prison. The truth-in sentencing laws require the offender to serve a substantial amount of their prison sentence (usually around 85 percent) before they are eligible for release on parole. The
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Discuss about the Models, tools and Techniques of Organizational Change. Answer: Literature review: This assignment is basically a literature review of the article A change management process : Grounded in both theory and practice. The topic of the article: In this assignment, the article A change management process : Grounded in both theory and practice, written by three renowned professors: Anthony Mento, Raymond Jones and Walter Dirndorfer has been chosen for further analysis. This article describes the change management process and illustrates how to implement this procedure both theoretically and practically. This article also involves 12 steps on the basis of some real life experiences that took place in the year 1990. These changes are very much required to execute the change. Objective of the article: This article mainly deals with the change management process. In 1990, the defense industry was facing severe problem due to inadequate defense budget. Due to the environmental shift, there was a requirement of the change management process. Two authors of this article were engaged in this process. There are various types of change models. The three most recognized change models are: Kotters strategic eight-step model for transforming organisations, Jicks tactical ten-step model for implementing change, and General Electric (GE)s seven-step change acceleration process. This article uses a model that is derived from the above mentioned three articles. The main objective of this study is to give proper assistance to a business practitioner who is undergoing in the organizational change procedure. The methodology and means of analysis used in this article: This part of the assignment describes the methodologies and means of analysis that are used in this article. The primary source of this assignment is the intuitive explanation of the article. The article proceeds by elaborating the models. The first model used in this paper is Eight-step model for transforming organizations by Kotter (Appelbaum et.al., 2012). The second model used in this article is a tactical level model by Jick (Martnez-Olvera, Davizon-Castillo, 2015). The third model used in this article is the General Electric (GE)s seven step change acceleration model (Ashkena et. al., 2015). The descriptive method is used to explain the above three models. The secondary sources are the related papers associated to this change management process. The argument advanced in the article: This part of the assignment describes the 12 steps involved in the changing process. The first step of the change management process involves the idea and its context. In this step, the idea is recognized which is required to be changed in a company. The second part of the analysis defines the change initiative (Contrafatto Burns, 2013). The third part analyses the assessment of the weather for change. The forth step defines how a plan is developed for implementing a change. The objective of the fifth step is to find out a sponsor. The sixth step describes the preparation for the target audience and the receivers of the changing process. The seventh step illustrates how to create the cultural fit by making the change. The next step defines how to choose a leader for the team. The ninth step illustrates the creation of success for motivation purpose. The tenth step describes how to retain the change constantly and strategically. The next step measures the growth of the change effort. Finally, the last step integrates the learned lessons. (Cameron Green, 2015). This section provides the critical analysis of the change management process. According to a research, some situations tend to raise the possibility that the managers will incorporate in executing the change. This type of situation may arise due to poor performance, lower profitability. People react in different manner to change. While some people supports the change, some others opinion may be against the change. It is the leaders duty to understand his team-members opinion regarding the change and support them as much as possible. Though it is not possible that everybody will have same opinion but still there should be some coordination among them. The conclusions/findings of the article: The conclusion part of the assignment sums up the whole discussion of the change management process. According to Hayes (2014), before implementing the change process, one has to understand clearly the entire process. Firstly, he must have a proper idea about the change process. When one is beginning the journey, he should assess the atmosphere for change. Secondly, to overcome problems and difficulties, he must create a policy to implement the plan. Then he has to find a person who will sponsor this. Then he has to arrange the targeted viewers who will be the beneficiaries of the process. Next, it has to be clarified that whether the selected team for implementing this process is efficient, professional or committed to their work. One person has to be the leader of the crew. Then one has to set small goals for future and should proceed accordingly. Moreover, he has to measure the improvement of this change and finally he should learn lessons from his past incidents. This is the enti re change management procedure (Pugh, 2016). The implications for managers / management during organizational change process: While introducing the change management process, the managers have some vital role to play. For example, they should identify which may be the new product introduced in the market or what type of renovation may give competition to its rival companies. It is very important for a companys manager to determine its strengths and weaknesses before implementing change (Nordin, 2012). Moreover, all the members of the company need to understand why the change is required for the organization. The role of the team leader is also very crucial in this context. Another implication for managers is to select proper staffs for the company. Strengths: The strengths of the change management process are described here. It places the company in a better position. The process generates better perspective for the type of the change required. It helps to execute a procedure to find a way to do the required change. Moreover, a change in management process is required for every organization but it is very important that how the change is done. Another positive side of this process is that it allows the employees of that organization to learn new things. Weaknesses: However, there are also some disadvantages of this process. If the change is not properly implemented, then it may disrupt any project. If all the employees do not accept the change, then it may cause conflicts among them. Moreover, to implement the change the company has to bear some costs. Therefore, the cost-to-benefit ratio must be considered before implementing the change. These are the major weaknesses of the change management process (Langley et. al., 2013). Reference list: Appelbaum, S. H., Habashy, S., Malo, J. L., Shafiq, H. (2012). Back to the future: revisiting Kotter's 1996 change model.Journal of Management Development,31(8), 764-782. Ashkenas, R., Ulrich, D., Jick, T., Kerr, S. (2015).The boundaryless organization: Breaking the chains of organizational structure. John Wiley Sons. Cameron, E., Green, M. (2015).Making sense of change management: a complete guide to the models, tools and techniques of organizational change. Kogan Page Publishers. Contrafatto, M., Burns, J. (2013). Social and environmental accounting, organisational change and management accounting: A processual view.Management Accounting Research,24(4), 349-365. Hayes, J. (2014).The theory and practice of change management. Palgrave Macmillan. Langley, A., Smallman, C., Tsoukas, H., Van de Ven, A. H. (2013). Process studies of change in organization and management: unveiling temporality, activity, and flow.Academy of Management Journal,56(1), 1-13. Martnez-Olvera, C., Davizon-Castillo, Y. A. (2015). Modeling the Supply Chain Management Creation of ValueA Literature Review of Relevant Concepts. Nordin, N., Deros, B. M., Wahab, D. A., Rahman, M. N. A. (2012). A framework for organisational change management in lean manufacturing implementation.International Journal of Services and Operations Management,12(1), 101-117. Pugh, L. (2016).Change management in information services. Routledge. Reigeluth, C. M. (Ed.). (2013).Instructional design theories and models: An overview of their current status. Routledge.
Monday, April 13, 2020
3 Sentences Demonstrating the Power of the Comma 3 Sentences Demonstrating the Power of the Comma 3 Sentences Demonstrating the Power of the Comma By Mark Nichol The three sentences that follow illustrate the importance of the inclusion or omission of a comma can have in easing comprehension of a sentence. 1. After two hours at the bar, Jones said Smith was too drunk to drive, and Smith insisted that Jones take him home. This sentence erroneously implies that two hours after Jones and Smith arrived at a bar, Jones made the statement (to Smith?) that Smith was too drunk to drive; it seems odd that after Jones confronted Smith, the latter would demand a ride home. However, Jones is relating, much later (and to another party), the fact that two hours after they arrived at the bar, Smith was too drunk to drive; his demand for a ride was not in response to a confrontational comment. Inserting a comma after said to make Ã¢â¬Å"Jones saidÃ¢â¬ a parenthetical attribution clarifies that Jones made the statement later, not that night: Ã¢â¬Å"After two hours at the bar, Jones said, Smith was too drunk to drive, and Smith insisted that Jones take him home.Ã¢â¬ 2. Smith admitted that he knew about the design side, but he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t know a whole heck of a lot about the manufacturing side. As written, this sentence suggests that although Smith acknowledged aloud that he was familiar with design, he apparently kept to himself his ignorance of manufacturing. However, though the context is not clear in isolation, Smith gave both pieces of information. In order to communicate that fact, the two components of the sentence must be parallel (Ã¢â¬Å"he admitted this and thatÃ¢â¬ ), and the comma must be omitted: Ã¢â¬Å"He admitted that he knew about the design side but he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t know a whole heck of a lot about the manufacturing side.Ã¢â¬ (A repeat of that can be inserted after but, though it is optional.) 3. This is the final known image of actor Robin Williams posing with a fan. This caption accompanying a photograph of Williams and an unidentified person can be read two ways: It is the last one he took with an admirer before his death (and the appearance of another person in the photo is important), or it is the last photograph taken of him before he died (and it just happens that it was taken with a fan). Even out of context, the first interpretation is suspect; unless the article the photo accompanies specifically pertains to the distinction of Williams being photographed with a fan (not likely), itÃ¢â¬â¢s almost certain that the fanÃ¢â¬â¢s presence in the photo is irrelevant to the distinction of the picture as the last one known to feature Williams before his death, and the phrase Ã¢â¬Å"posing with a fanÃ¢â¬ should be treated as a dependent clause: Ã¢â¬Å"This is the final known image of actor Robin Williams, posing with a fan.Ã¢â¬ Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Punctuation category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:85 Synonyms for Ã¢â¬Å"HelpÃ¢â¬ Connotations of 35 Words for Funny PeopleWhat Is a Doctor?
Wednesday, March 11, 2020
how life began essays About 4.6 billion years ago the Earth was a fiery mass of liquid matter. As the hot mass began to cool, a rock crust formed on the Earth's surface, and the gases escaping from the newly made rocks formed the early atmosphere. The early atmosphere was made up of methane, ammonia, water vapor and hydrogen. There was no free oxygen in the early atmosphere. As the Earth cooled further the water vapor condensed, flooding the Earth with rain to form the oceans. Life begun in the harsh environments that dominated the early Earth, such as hot springs, submarine volcanic vents or in hot rocks deep within the Earth. Early forms of bacteria began to evolve about 3500-3800 million years ago, when there was little oxygen in the atmosphere. They produced energy using sources other than oxygen, such as nitrogen and sulfur compounds. Species similar to these early bacteria survive today and are found only in harsh environments, such as hot springs or deep in the Earth, where there is no oxygen. Oxygen is poisonous to these species. Some of the early bacteria evolved in a way to use the sun's energy to create a chemical reaction called photosynthesis. The earliest living things on Earth were primitive forms of bacteria. They were single-celled organisms with their genetic material free in their cells, not inside a nucleus. These types of cells are known as prokaryotes. About 1800 million years ago, new, complex, single-celled organisms evolved. They were called eucaryotes and had their DNA inside a nucleus, like the cells of most organisms today. Eucaryotes also had organelles inside the cell that performed a number of important functions. Some organelles are derived from free-living bacteria that became incorporated into, and formed beneficial relationships with, these early eucaryotes. ...
Monday, February 24, 2020
Human Computer Interaction - Usability and Evaluation - Essay Example Hartson, Andre, and Williges (2003, p.145) note that usability, also referred to as human factors, or human-computer interface design or user-centered design, has become a major field of interest in both industry and academia. This is attributed to the roles computer play in the daily lives of individuals. That is, the more we need to interact with computers, the more we tend to demand well-designed software interfaces. Software developers play a crucial role in answering such demands. Designing better interfaces have quite a number of commercial merits as having been demonstrated by big companies such as Apple, IBM, Eastman Kodak, SAAB, Rank Xerox and Microsoft just to name but a few. The advantages of well-designed software include increased productivity, reduced human error, as well as making the software use enjoyable (Matera, Rizzo, and Carughi 2006, p143). Nonetheless, usability is sometimes ignored not because it is considered worthless, rather because it is considered very ex pensive, which is a misconception, according to experts. Software developers also sometimes ignore usability, which does not justify the cost of usability testing and evaluation. Ignoring usability in interface design has greater cost attachments, as having been demonstrated in past fatal accidents that has resulted due to the failures of interface to show vital information. One such accident occurred in 1987 when an American airline crashed during takeoff at Detroit killing 156 passengers on board (Matera, Rizzo, and Carughi 2006, p143). The accident, according to investigations, was caused pilotÃ¢â¬â¢s failure to recognize the wrong positions of flaps during the aircraftÃ¢â¬â¢s takeoff. A skilled interface designer would have proper knowledge of organize an interface in such a manner that vital information cannot be missed. This paper will explore the principles of usability and the methods used to evaluate software interfaces. Finally, the paper will evaluate an Amazon.com we bsite in line with the usability principles. Usability design principles Adebesin (2011) argues that the interactive systems ought to be designed in a manner that supports the user to achieve his or her objectives. To do this, the design team need multi-disciplinary, with practitioners possessing ergonomics, cognitive science, and computer skills among others. This ensures that the team understands physical capabilities, human problem solving, their working environment, and the entire interaction context. A number of design guidelines are used in the software interface development. The design guidelines range from general to application-specific rules. Hartson, Andre, and Williges (2003, p.146) classify the design rules according to their level of authority and generality. According to Hartson, Andre, and Williges, the authority of design rule spells out whether or not the rules are to be followed or not. The level of generality, on the other hand, directs developers in ascertaining whether a particular guideline can be widely applied in different design situations. There are three basic principles of usability identified by Matera, Rizzo, and Carughi (2006, p.145). The first principle of usability design principle, according to Matera, Rizzo, and Carughi (2006, p145), is the principle of unity. The principle of unity in interface design is crucial since ensures congruency in the use of the interface. The unity principle also allows software interfac